Outbreak of the war
End of the war

Martin Mutschlechner


A diversity of confessions

All of the major monotheistic religions were represented in the Habsburg empire. In spite of the clear dominance of the Catholic Church, the Habsburg Monarchy was multi-confessional.


Austria-Hungary – a major European power?

On the eve of the First World War Austria-Hungary was the European state with the second-largest area after Russia. In spite of its enormous size, however, the Habsburg empire was falling behind the major European powers in many respects.


The Moravian Compromise: light at the end of the tunnel?

The Moravian Compromise was one of the few positive examples of an approach to a fair solution in the field of nationalities policies. Despite the deadlock in the language dispute between Czechs and Germans, a compromise acceptable to both sides and allowing a harmonious coexistence was found here.


School as a place of conflict: national agitation in the classroom

In the old Habsburg Monarchy, school policies were an ideological landmine. The extent to which national emotions clouded the view is shown by examples where educational policy decisions led to nationalist escalation and shook the foundations of the Monarchy.


The metropolis as melting pot III: Budapest and Pressburg/Bratislava

Budapest was the second capital of the Dual Monarchy and grew rapidly to become a European metropolis. While Budapest took on a decidedly Magyar character, Pressburg/Bratislava remained a classical example of the multi-ethnicity of many central European cities.


The metropolis as melting pot II: Prague

Prague (Czech Praha), the capital of the Kingdom of Bohemia, had always been a bilingual city in which Germans and Czechs lived alongside each other. The history of the city was dominated by the alternating importance of the languages. From the middle of the 19th century, the pendulum swung to the benefit of Czech.


The role of statistics and the official view

The last complete statistical record of the Habsburg Monarchy was made in 1910. The huge quantities of data collected present a graphic image of the condition of the Dual Monarchy on the eve of the First World War and reflect the great variety as well as the enourmous differences and appalling inequalities between the regions.