Outbreak of the war
End of the war

Martin Mutschlechner


The crisis of dualism

The two halves of the Dual Monarchy evolved in different directions after 1867. Opinions about the rights and obligations of the two parts of the empire with regard to the state as a whole diverged increasingly.


From neo-absolutism to Compromise

After the defeat of the Hungarian revolution, brutal retaliatory measures were decreed by the Austrian authorities. Officers, officials and other representatives of the revolution were court-martialled.


The Hungarian war of independence 1848/49

In the Vormärz era, a new generation emerged in Hungarian ‘patriotic’ circles, a young and more radical movement that became increasingly assertive in its claims for nationhood, demanding a special constitutional status for Hungary within the Monarchy.


Pride of the nation: the Hungarian nobility

As in the majority of the Habsburg empire, the aristocracy was the ruling class in Hungary and was able to maintain its political and economic privileges until the First World War. In the process of national development, however, it played a more important role in Hungary than in most of the other nationalities of central Europe.


From ‘Natio Hungarica’ to Magyar nation

In the era of emergent national identity, the foundations of a modern Magyar nation were also laid in Hungary, where it took place on the basis of a strong national awareness and historical identification with the Crown of St Stephen.


The Magyars and the Habsburg Monarchy

The Hungarians – or in a narrower ethnic sense Magyars – saw themselves as a nation state within the Kingdom of Hungary. In the realm of the Crown of St Stephen, the Magyars were not only the dominant language group but also the largest ethnic group.