Within the Monarchy as a whole, the Bosnians, i.e. the southern Slav Muslims in Bosnia, were one of the smallest ethnic groups accounting for just 1.2 per cent of the population of the empire.
The cradle of modern Serbia was to be found significantly in Vienna and Pest, where small but prosperous and politically influential Serb communities lived in the Diaspora and Serbian intelligentsia absorbed influences from western Europe.
In 1910 the Serbs were one of the smaller ethnic groups in the Habsburg Monarchy with around 1.9 million people, 3.8 per cent of the total population. They were scattered throughout several crown lands and regions and did not enjoy an absolute majority anywhere.
The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 heralded a new era, which brought about a complete change in the balance of power between the young nations in the Habsburg Monarchy. The Croats attempted to further develop their status in the multinational state.
The 1848 revolution called for the dismantling of traditional hierarchies and the emancipation of nations. The leaders of the emerging Croat nation saw their opportunity for claiming their national future.
The Croat language group in the Habsburg Monarchy in 1910 numbered 2.8 million people, 5.3 per cent of the total population.
Slovene national politics were characterized by a struggle on several fronts against German and Italian hegemony claims. After the outbreak of war in 1914, the continued existence of a Slovene nation was put into question. Yugoslavism became a political option, but the Slovene political camps were divided as to how the idea should be put into practice.
For the Slovenes as well, their language was the most important point of distinction from the ‘others’. In the era of nationalism, there status as one of the smaller ethnic groups in the region meant that the struggle for emancipation and linguistic equality were the main focal points.
In the study of the history of the nineteenth century, which concentrated above all on the history of states, the Slovenes, who did not have a state of their own, were regarded as being ‘without history’.
The Slovenes were one of the smaller ethnic groups in the Habsburg multinational empire. In 1910 only 1.4 million people claimed to speak the language habitually, just 2.6 per cent of the population of the Dual Monarchy.