Outbreak of the war
End of the war

The condition of the Habsburg Monarchy on the eve of the war

Around the turn of the century the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy enjoyed a glorious flowering in the arts, scholarship and science. At the same time, however, the country was shaken by apparently insoluble social and national conflicts. Under a dazzlingly brilliant surface the Habsburg imperium was struggling with a profound crisis.

By the beginning of the twentieth century the Habsburg political system had become rigidified through its traditional policy of ‘muddling through’, which was marked by a constant preference for compromise and a reluctance to forge concrete solutions to its most serious political, economic and social problems. 

The most urgent issue was the question of the nationalities, which in a state with so many ethnic groups was a particularly explosive problem. Amongst the various nationalisms, one that posed a particular threat to the Danube monarchy’s power of cohesion was German nationalism. In addition, Magyar separatism was on the increase, so that Austria-Hungary was under serious threat of disintegrating.

After a long period of emancipation the smaller nationalities were soon also making demands for greater participation in the political system. Vain attempts to solve the problems on the part of constantly changing governments had the opposite effect and led to veritable state crises, with the dramatic escalation of ethnic conflicts sometimes resulting in states of affairs bordering on civil war. The state found that there was less and less it could do to mitigate the general malaise.

The Monarchy also found that it had less and less room to manoeuvre on the foreign front. Ever since the conclusion of the Dual Alliance in 1878 Germany had been by far its most important partner. The Austrians were perfectly aware of the problems inherent in their increasing dependence on a vastly more powerful ally but they clung to the Alliance for want of any viable alternatives.

Austria-Hungary’s close relationship with Germany did in fact have a stabilizing effect at home, because the German Empire created by Bismarck had expanded to its final borders and was not contemplating any expansion into Austrian territories. The alliance with Germany was also important for the German nationals within the Habsburg Monarchy, as its dependence on the strong German partner was a guarantee of their privileged position in the Monarchy as a whole. Although the German nationalists nurtured the pan-Germanist dream of the German-speaking areas of the Habsburg Empire being incorporated into the Reich, this project was rejected by Bismarck, who had the strongest possible interest in the survival of a vigorous and resilient Danube Monarchy. 

Translation: Peter John Nicholson


Hanisch, Ernst: Der lange Schatten des Staates. Österreichische Gesellschaftsgeschichte im 20. Jahrhundert [Österreichische Geschichte 1890–1990, hrsg. von Herwig Wolfram], Wien 2005

Rauchensteiner, Manfried: Der Erste Weltkrieg und das Ende der Habsburgermonarchie 1914–1918, Wien u. a. 2013

Rumpler, Helmut: Eine Chance für Mitteleuropa. Bürgerliche Emanzipation und Staatsverfall in der Habsburgermonarchie [Österreichische Geschichte 1804–1914, hrsg. von Herwig Wolfram], Wien 2005

Traum und Wirklichkeit. Wien 1870–1930. Katalog der 93. Sonderausstellung des Historischen Museums der Stadt Wien 1985, Wien 1985

Das Zeitalter Kaiser Franz Josephs – 2. Teil: 1880–1916. Glanz und Elend. Katalog der Niederösterreichischen Landesausstellung auf Schloss Grafenegg 1987, Wien 1987

Contents related to this chapter


  • Aspect

    On the eve of war

    The last decade of the nineteenth century and the first of the twentieth were a time of modernisation, mechanisation and speed. In 1910, Vienna, capital of the Habsburg empire, had 2.1 million inhabitants and had grown to become an international metropolis. New technologies changed working life and leisure. Railways increased mobility, as did the bicycle, motor vehicle and aeroplane. How did this development manifest itself and what other trends emerged in the last years before the outbreak of the First World War?

Persons, Objects & Events


  • Development

    Austria-Hungary and Germany: complicated relations

    Vienna and Berlin became closely associated following the Dual Alliance of 1879, although the Habsburg Monarchy was the junior partner. Its dependence in terms of foreign policy became all the more clear after the political unification of Germany in 1871 made it the dominant power in Central Europe. In domestic policy as well, dependence on the Hohenzollern empire made the German element predominant in the multi-ethnic state. The German-speaking populations were split in their identification with Austria and Germany.