The war became increasingly present in Vienna. Shortly after it started, thousands of refugees, including many Jews, began to stream into the city. Neither the city council nor the government was adequately prepared for this situation. And within the population, envy, aggression and increased anti-Semitism soon became evident.
The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was regarded by many Habsburg Jews with concern. They welcomed democracy but feared an increase in anti-Semitism. By now they were all too familiar with how rapidly blame could be laid on "the Jews".