Outbreak of the war
End of the war

Roman Kochanowski: The Vavel, the Royal Castle in Kraków, illustration

The re-establishment of Poland as a sovereign state and the unification of the Polish settlement territories were the main aims of the Polish national movement in the 19th century. The golden age of Poland in the 15th and 16th centuries under the dynasty of the Jagiellonians served as their historical model.

Verwendet bei

  • Chapter

    The drive for unification

    As well as differing in their language and sense of national identity, the nationalities of the Habsburg multi-ethnic state also differed with respect to their areas of settlement. While some groups lived entirely within the Habsburg Monarchy, others were spread across the borders. In some cases this factor had considerable influence on historical developments.

  • Chapter

    The struggle of the Poles for their nation: Poland is not yet lost!

    The first words of the Polish national anthem call out the hopes of the Poles to regain their freedom. Poland foundered as a nation because of the Polish Partitions in the late eighteenth century, when the neighbouring Great Powers of Prussia, Russia and Austria partitioned the territory of the Polish aristocratic republic between them.