The old world was increasingly falling apart. The collapse of the Habsburg Monarchy and the proclamation of the republic marked a clear change, but wartime and post-war Vienna showed remarkable parallels. An improvement in the living conditions of the people of Vienna was not in sight. Added to this was the fear or hope, depending on ideology, of revolution and a soviet dictatorship. From the end of October 1918 to June 1919 Vienna was the scene of bloody demonstrations and clashes.